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Spotlight on Spice: Nutmeg Factory

white and black nutmegs and red mace drying in the sun in balik pulau penang
Sun-drying mace (red arils), young nutmegs (white), mature nutmegs (brown)

Cinnamon, Clove, Ginger, Nutmeg – all closely associated with Christmas.  Each spice adding a layer of warmth to any dessert on those frigid, winter days.

But where do they come from?  Before the whole spices are ground up into a powder, bottled and sold on the grocery store shelf, they come from places nowhere near the North Pole.  These four spices originated in South and Southeast Asia, and have since spread to other tropical regions in Africa and the Caribbean.

That Christmas eggnog you are drinking may even have a dash of ground nutmeg from a fruit that was grown on a tropical island off the west coast of Malaysia - in Penang.

old nutmeg tree with ripe fruit hanging on tree in penang malaysia
Female nutmeg trees (male trees do not bear fruit) have two harvesting seasons - starting in March and September

Developed in the late 18th century by the British East India Company as a potential site for major spice plantations, Penang received thousands of nutmeg and clove seedlings from the Moluccas (“The Spice Islands”), the only place on earth where nutmeg and clove trees were found.

Penang’s spice plantations flourished, but so did the British Empire, and with it, the propagation of spice plantations throughout their colonies.  Penang’s role in breaking the monopoly of the Spice Route quickly diminished, and to this day, the legacy can only be found in a few small farms on the east side of the island, which produce some of the highest quality nutmeg in the world.

nutmeg seed for grating, white nutmeg for oil, and brown nutmeg for cooking at farm
Right: Young white nutmeg harvested early for nutmeg oil, and mature brown nutmeg and red mace for culinary uses

Even as a small, family run operation, Ghee Hup Nutmeg Factory is the biggest nutmeg producer in Penang (and probably in Malaysia).  The farm began in 1953, when owner, Chang Kun Mim, left school to help his father with his new venture.  What started out as just a farm, eventually grew into a factory as well, when during one bountiful harvest, Chang found himself with too many nutmegs and not enough buyers.  Instead of selling them off for pennies, he decided to create his own nutmeg products.

chang kun mim, owner of ghee hup nutmeg factory in balik pulau, penang, malaysia

In addition to selling whole nutmegs and mace, and even nutmeg trees, the Ghee Hup Nutmeg Factory now creates all sorts of nutmeg products – nutmeg jam, nutmeg balm, nutmeg oil, nutmeg juice, nutmeg syrup, candied nutmeg fruit, pickled nutmeg fruit.  And recently, organic nutmeg tea – made from dried, ground nutmeg fruit.  He also uses nutmeg leaves and stems to make a quick tea for visitors.

nutmeg juice at beef koay teow stall on corner of beach street and chulia street penang
Nutmeg fruit being prepared for juice

Already in his late 60s, you wouldn’t know it based on the energy that Chang exudes while discussing everything and anything about nutmeg and mace.  He leaves little doubt about how a nutmeg – in its many forms – can treat arthritis, indigestion, high blood pressure, headaches, and more.

removing white mace from white nutmeg shell to prepare to make medicinal nutmeg oil
Chang's wife separating the aril (mace) from the young nutmeg shells

how long for nutmeg shells to dry before cracking them open to collect the seed
Mature nutmegs: they will sit in the sun for one week until the seed inside dries enough to rattle

With his children off to careers in the city, and modern development reaching closer to his property, Chang may be the end of the line for the Ghee Hup Nutmeg Factory.  The closing of this treasure would be another lost link to Penang’s early history along the Spice Route.

But if nutmeg is as magical as Chang describes, that connection to the past will live on for many more years.  Maybe even long enough to convince one of his kids to change their mind.

early stages of nutmeg flower
A bud sprouting on a decades old nutmeg tree


BiteMyCake said...

I love how every time I learn so much about a spice I like. Thank you!

seasonwithspice said...

It's amazing how often we grab for a bottle of spice (and everything in our kitchen) and never think about where it comes from - not the place, and not the plant it grows on. Thanks Tamara!

Beau said...

Seriously interesting read. Brilliant pictures too! It's always satisfying to know where your eats come from!

seasonwithspice said...

Thanks for reading Beau! I don't think many people realize that when they smell that bottle of ground nutmeg in their cupboard, it is the same fragrance of the tropical fruit that encases it.

Ginny said...

Will you please bring me a nutmeg tree when you come visit? Thank you!

seasonwithspice said...

No problem! I better bring some Balik Pulau soil along as well:)

SimplyTia said...

Very interesting!!! My neighboring island (Grenada) in the Caribbean is called "The Spice Island" They are thr largest nutmeg producers in the Caribbean.

Heidi said...

Great post! I love nutmeg but being able to see these pictures and read about it really opened my eyes - I had no idea. Thanks for posting this :D

Deana@lostpastremembered said...

I have seen the nut with mace many times but never green in the shell.. very cool... thanks for the pics!

seasonwithspice said...

Thanks Tia, would love to visit Grenada one day.

seasonwithspice said...

Thanks Heidi, if you are ever in Penang or Grenada or anywhere else that grows nutmeg, be sure to check out a nutmeg farm. There's something exciting about opening a nutmeg fruit for the first time and seeing the amazing red aril and black shell inside.

seasonwithspice said...

Hi Deana, there's also a good picture of nutmeg in the fruit you can check out here: http://blog.seasonwithspice.com/2011/04/nutmeg-or-buah-pala.html

Maja Matus said...

Guys, this is sooo amazing, I din't have a clue! So interesting :)

Shannon Lim said...

Oh I'm so happy to have found this page as I was searching for fresh nutmeg in Penang. Asked my mama and some friends, they look at me puzzled, I guess not many Penangites use fresh nutmeg in their cooking? can you share the location of this hidden treasure? thanks! and I love your amazing site!

Season with Spice said...

Hi Shannon - thanks for leaving us your comment! Ghee Hup Nutmeg Factory is located in Teluk Bahang near the Titi Kerawang waterfall. It's about 8-10 km north of Balik Pulau. Drive along the road and look out for sign that says 'Kilang Buah Pala'. You won't miss it. Have fun!

In Penang, the fruits (white part) are only used for drinks. For cooking, it is the nutmeg seed that is used. You will most likely find it in Nyonya cuisine or traditional homestyle Malay dishes. The secret of a good bak kut teh is nutmeg seed. Also, you can use it in Chinese New Year dishes such as Chai Boay or Stew Duck. Really makes a difference.

You can see more recipes using nutmeg (asian & western) via the link here:

Season with Spice said...

just found the full address and telephone number of the nutmeg factory. Here you go - 202A, Mk 3 Sungai Pinang, 11010 Balik Pulau. Tel: 016 4336 303.

Hari007ganeshan said...

good nice.. can you give more information regarding ho to make nutmeg oil

Jesma Archibald said...

Before hurricane Ivan devastated our nutmeg plantations in 2004,Grenada had been the second largest exporter of nutmegs in the world.

Season with Spice said...

I'm sorry to hear that, Jesma. Since a newly planted nutmeg tree can take almost a decade until it can produce fruit, hopefully, the nutmeg plantations in Grenada will recover in the next few years.

Aslan said...

I am on island Taveuni (Fiji) at the moment and was hiking through the Boume National Heritage Park when I found a nutmeg with the red shining aril wrapped aroind it. From cooking books I could recall to have seen a nutmeg before and started researching. The locals I met were not aware of it. Thanks for your interesting page!

Season with Spice said...

Hi Aslan, that must have been such a cool sight to find a nutmeg in the jungle. They are not native to that island, so nutmeg seedlings were probably brought over by British in the 19th century.

Have a wonderful time in Fiji!

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